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It is black with blue-green markings. This single spoor is an unfailing guide. East Africa, from the standpoint of zoology, belongs to the Ethiopian region, which comprises all Africa south of the Sahara, together with a part of Southern Arabia. Thighs dark brown, irregularly barred with white ; belly and under tad -coverts dark brown, the latter fringed with dirty white. During the first period of immersion it is desirable occasionally to turn over the specimens and to press them between the fingers, so as to expel the blood and mucosities ; the viscera should not be removed or injured as they are often required for study.

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Excellent work, Nice Design hentia teen porn yct teen tiatians porn: Like all the bush-loving Francolins, it is a great runner and is difficult to flush. Feathered parts of the sides of the face and throat white, entirely surrounding the naked skin of the chin, throat and fore-neck. Iris brown ; naked skin of the face and throat blood-red ; bill and feet also blood-red.

Pternistes leucocepus infuscatus, Cabanis. North of Kikuyu there appears to be a considerable break, as it does not reappear again in the Rift Valley until north of the Equator, on the lower reaches of the Molo River, and in the vicinity of Lake Hannington. Its call is harsh and grating, and it is particularly noisy after a shower of rain. During the heat of the day it lies very close in the shade of some thick covert, and is difficult to dislodge ; but in the early morning and evening, when found feeding in the open, its running powers are only equalled by those of the Guinea-Fowls, its action being very bold and erect.

Iris hazel ; bill blackish brown ; gape and base of the lower mandible, bare skin of the face and upper-throat crimson-red ; rest of the throat lemon-yellow ; feet blackish brown. The distribution of this fine Bare-throated Francolin is rather curious. It is found in rough broken ground along water-courses bordered with bush and scrub.

Its call, which is harsh and grating, is exactly like that of P. Iris brown; bill and feet crimson-red ; naked skin of the face and throat also crimson-red. Fischer, and at Lake Elmenteita by Mr. Iris brown ; naked skin of the face red, of the chin and throat yellow. There may be many members who are anxious to do some work in this field, and who are at the same time rather doubtful as to what they can do and w T here to begin ; one may compare such to a child placed in a room full of toys and standing wondering and confused, doubtful as to which it should select to amuse itself with.

Most men, if they live long in a country like this, cannot help falling to some extent a victim to the spells of nature ; the wealth of the mammalian fauna and its attendant sport awakens a thrill in nearly all: The scenery of the more rugged parts of the country appeals to the artistic eye, but it is feared that 24 NATURE STUDY only a few try to read the riddle and go back to the geological causes of which the scenery is but the answer.

The writer will now venture to call attention to a few things to which would-be students and observers may quite usefully direct their attention. First of these is a nature calendar. He was not a highly trained scientist, but had the natural gift of careful observation, accompanied, needless to say, by boundless patience.

Go for a walk with a trained observer and you will marvel why you were so blind. The faculty of observation is not however learnt in a day, and, like most good things in this world, can only be won by great patience and application. At this stage one seems to hear the neophyte inquire what he shall observe.

Well, let us try to make a few suggestions. This can be done to a great extent through the medium of this Society, and a helping hand will be afforded to all who desire to learn.

Ease Troubles Thats What You Do Analgirls

Then note down in a journal facts about these tenants of your realm: When do the snipe flight, and note the species ; when do the quail and the sand-grouse appear — notice, too, if their numbers vary from year to year ; when do the great flights of European storks appear, the locust-birds as they are generally called.

Try to find out whether all the migrants come from the North, as is often alleged ; try to discover if any come from the South during the period of the southern winter, say June to August. On what date did you see a cloud of locusts, and from which direction did they come? If you live near the plains, when did you see the first young gazelles or antelopes?

When did you observe the first swarm of bees, and on what date did the white ants fly out in myriads? The white ant, although so common, has been very incompletely studied, and there are many species still undescribed. Here is a field for investigation. When do the swarms of black and green caterpillars appear, and when do the clouds of the marbled white butterfly.

Beleneis severina, the imagined form of the above-mentioned caterpillar appear? When does the standard winged nightjar put on its breeding plumage? When do the elephants leave the high forests and come down into the lower country? When do the fresh-water medusae appear in Lake Victoria, and how are they propagated?

These are a few points upon which accurate information is required ; there are, of course, thousands of others, and simultaneous observations made by members in different parts of the country will, when collected, prove of the greatest interest to science.

Here is work for every one and much of it at your very doors. What is now needed are facts, and that goal, with the organisation afforded by the Society, should be within our grasp. Be field naturalists first, the technical description of species and the scientific co-ordination of the facts will come later ; the details of the life-history of the fauna and flora, great and small, are very imperfectly known, and cannot be learnt until an army of observers has been patiently working for some time.

There is no freemasonry more complete than that conferred by a common interest in nature, and the greatest scientist bows with respect to the accurate observations of the man in the field ; so do not think that the work of a tyro is likely to be scorned, send in your notes, and as long as they are accurate and accompanied by details of place and date, they are bound to be of value, for remember that the success and status of the Society depend upon the quality of the information published in its bulletin or journal, and that solely depends upon the zealous co-operation of the members.

The thing to realise is that in this country there is work to do at your very door ; it is so different in places like England, where men have to go train journeys of many miles to find collecting grounds, and there are many other obstacles to research, such as the law of trespass and what-not. One of the great obstacles to nature study in this country, both at present and for years to come, is the scattered state of the students and the consequent difficulty of frequently meeting and discussing questions, but this has not prevented success being attained in other similar countries, and we must not be discouraged on that account ; advice will always be freely given by members of the Committee and others, and every year matters will improve in this respect.

A few words with regard to collecting: As the white population increases and as the Society grows, each district will then contain a man who is more or less an expert on each particular branch of the zoology of that district, and the results will be more complete. Special stress must be laid upon the importance of photo- graphy.

The interest of a paper accompanied by pictures is doubled ; as an aid to accurate observations it is of particular value. Compare the plates in an old book of birds with the modern work in this branch: A named collection of photos of the forest trees of the country, for instance, would be a thing of great interest and quite unique.

Photographs of native ceremonies and ceremonial adorn- ments are greatly needed, as many of these functions will, with the advent of civilisation, speedily become things of the past. Great care should be taken to label all photographs care- fully, giving place and date as well as subject, and it would also be advisable to state where the negatives are available, in case duplicates are required.

Great care should also be taken thoroughly to wash all prints in order to remove all traces of the fixing medium, hyposulphite of soda, to obviate fading of the prints. With regard to the photographs for reproduction in the bulletin clear contrast should be aimed at ; if the prints are done by the ordinary silver process a purple tone should be obtained.

Some bromide prints reproduce well, but carbon or platinotype prints produce better results. There are, however, special facilities for such work in the Government laboratories, and therefore no opportunity of making slides of scientific interest should be neglected.

Thanks to the pioneer work of Schilling, Kearton and others, the time is within sight when it will be considered a far more meritorious thing to photograph a wild animal than to have killed it for the sake of the trophy, and there are definite signs that the photography of live game and birds is gaining a very wide vogue. A fair test of this is the number of reproductions of this class of work one sees in the illustrated paper or magazine, and these are undoubtedly increasing, and moreover im- proving in quality.

A great field, too, has been opened up by the application of the cinematograph to this branch of w r ork, and animated pictures showing the processes of the metamorphoses of insects and similar phenomena cannot fail to bring man into closer touch with the realm of nature, and year by year, owing to improvements in apparatus, work of this character is becoming more and more within reach of the amateur.

A skeleton programme of lines of research under the various headings is now given ; this is only intended as a kind of aide-memoire, and as a list of suggestions for study. It will, however, give some idea of the vast choice of research that lies before every observer. Complete index of species.

Facts re geographical distribution of species throughout the Protectorates. Information on the migration of species. Breeding places and breeding dates of various species, number at a birth. Small mammals, bats, nocturnal animals. Melanism and albinism, its range; observations on habits, mimicry, variation due to altitude.

Geographical distribution of species indigenous to the country. Migrants, lists of ; dates of arrival and departure ; list of migrants breeding here. Breeding places and nesting time of various species, number of eggs in a clutch. Collections of eggs and nests as well as the birds them- selves.

Beptiles, Amphibia and Fish. Poisonous and non-poisonous species. Definite places where particular species are to be obtained. Breeding places and times. Marine and fresh- water fishes, collections of. Owing to the enormous size of this group a complete list of species will be an impossibility for many years to come.

Localities where the various species can be caught, and dates. Results of experiments on hatching out certain species from the egg, and variations recorded. Observations on enemies of insects. Collections are also desired of the Mollusca of the fresh- water lakes and the Indian Ocean. Fresh- water Medusae of Lake Victoria ; do they have the hydroid or polyp form of propagation?

This is an important point to investigate. Complete list of species; this will take a long time to accomplish, and many new species still remain to be described. Seasonal changes of plants. Exact localities in which species of special interest can be obtained. Botany of economic products. Information on structural geology of country. Reference collections of rock and mineral specimens.

Research into the palaeontology of the country, with special attention to the recent fossil mammals, ancestors of elephant and horse, fossil mollusca. Economic geology of the Protectorate. Evidences of palaeolithic man. Researches should be divided into different heads.

Material life such as clothing, ornamentations, dwellings, industries, art, food. Religion, mythology and magic, also totemism, coven- ants, oaths, ordeals. Representative collections of the implements, arms and NATURE STUDY 31 ornaments of the various tribes in the country would prove of the widest interest, and this is a matter of urgency, as many objects are disappearing.

A list of books is here appended for the information of members taking up various branches of study. Cambridge Natural His- tory. Variation, Heredity and Study of Animal Life. With Nature and a 7s. Wild Life at Home — how 6s. Preparation and Mount- 2s. Journal of a Naturalist 2s. Geographical Distribu- 42 5. Flower and Lyd- Mammalia. Mammals, Living and Black.

Book of Fauna of East Africa, in German. Ruwenzori Expedition Reports — Mammalia. Cambridge Natural His- tory, Vol. Structure and Classifica- 6s. Structure and Flight of Birds. Bird Life of the Borders. Wonders of the Bird Ogil vie- Grant W. Ruwenzori Expedition Reports — Aves. Reptiles and Amphibia, edited by R.

Ruwenzori Expedition Reports — Reptilia and Amphibia. Playfair and Gunther Moore J. Study of Fishes, Guide to. Ruwenzori Expedition Reports — Pisces. Cambridge Natural His- tory, Vols. Theobald Out of print. Manual for Study of 25s. Origin and Metamor- 5s.

Ants, Bees and Wasps. Swan Sonnen- Poulton E. Colours of Animals and 5s. Natural History of 3s. Fertilisation of Orchids 2s. Treatise on Zoology, edited by R. Percival John Agricultural Botany. The Classification of 10 s. Text Book Practical 10s. Text Book of Geology. Text Book of Palaeonto- 35s. Principles of Stratigra- 6s. Outlines of Vertebrate 14s.

Haddon Study of Man. Anthropological Essays presented to E. Origin of the Kingship. Duckworth Morphology and Anthro- 10s. In a country such as this where there are lands stretching away from the coast up to the line of perpetual snow, and all subject to the rays of the equatorial sun, the floral distribution must, of necessity, form a very interesting study.

It must not be supposed, however, that the plants mentioned in this article can all be seen in flower at any one particular time of the year. The altitudes given for the stations have been kindly supplied by Mr. Church of the Uganda Railway. Near the lake may be seen flat-topped Acacias, so characteristic of the African landscape anywhere near water.

Growing in the grass are many Crinums which, just before the rains commence, put out their beautiful white and pink flowers ; other plants to be seen are species of Helichrysum, Heliotropa, Coleus, Lantana, Buddleia, and forming conspicuous patches of white and pink in the grass, Ramphicarpa heuglinii. After passing Mount Longonot the Capparis trees disappear and are not met with again along the line.

Close to Kijabe, feet, small Juniperus procera trees may be seen growing at the foot of Kijabe peak. After leaving Kijabe the line continues to ascend steadily ; for a mile or so Tarconanthus bushes continue, but when the forest is reached they cease and do not appear again. Between Kijabe and the commencement of the forest may be seen in July splendid specimens of the white Benias.

In the forest may be seen the giant Junipers Juniperus procera in all their grandeur ; many of them having boles free of all branches for sixty feet ; alas that appearances are sometimes deceptive! For when these trees are felled the majority of them prove to be but mere hollow shells, the heartwood having all been eaten away by a fungus, probably a species of Trametes.

Associated with the Juniper are the following trees: Several species of Plectranthus form the carpet of the forest ; along the line flourish species of Pentas, Celsia, Helianthus, Myosotis, Achroclyne, Thun- bergia. Warburgia trees cease before Escarpment station is reached, and only reappear again about three miles from Limoru.

As soon as the summit of the Kikuyu Escarpment, about feet, is reached, a marked change in the vegetation takes place occasioned by the increased rainfall. The eastern side of the Escarpment being exposed to the South-east winds receives a very much heavier rainfall than the western side.

Juniper ceases at the summit and is replaced by Podocarpus milanjianus; Calodendron, Olea chryso'phylla, and Nuxia also disappear, but are replaced by a host of other trees — Pygeum africanum Mueri ; Allophyllum abysinnicum Mushami ; Weihea africana Musaizi ; Mcaranga sp.

Mutundu ; Hepta- pleurum sp. Mutati ; Dombeya nairobensis Mukao ; Elaeo- dendron sp. Nuxia congesta reappears again at Limoru, feet, and flourishes as low down as feet, when it ceases. After passing the summit, the line skirts the Lari swamp, which at certain seasons presents a fine piece of colour with the yellow and red-hot pokers Knifhofias K.

On the drier ground above the swamp Thunbergia alata flourishes and is very conspicuous with its large golden-yellow blooms. Across the swamp can be seen groups of Bamboo Arundinaria alpina , and a fleeting vision of the tree ferns may be had ; after passing the swamp the line again passes through forest, but of a very much more luxuriant type than that on the other side of the Escarpment.

The wild bananas Musa Livingstonia show out in bold relief to the comparatively small-leaved trees of the forest, the shining Magnolia -like leaves of Tabernaemontana abys- sinica Muwele are also conspicuous. Nuxia congesta and Olea chrysophylla become abundant again, and also Olea hochstetteri and War- burgia ugandensis. Wherever the land, formerly cultivated, has been allowed to lie fallow it is covered with Abutilon bidentatum and Bidens pilosa: Associated with the Abutilon is a purple Vernonia.

Another noxious plant begins to make its appearance in ever-increasing quantities as the line descends, which is the Solanum campylacanthum ; this plant may be said to have a wider distribution than any other plant in the Protectorate ; it is easily recognised by its branching habit of growth, paucity of leaves, and its yellow fruit, somewhat resembling in size and shape a crab-apple.

After leaving Kikuyu Station the line descends rapidly to Nairobi, feet ; between these two stations the country gradually becomes drier and there is a marked change in the flora. Soon after leaving Kikuyu the characteristic light- crowned trees of the Croton elliottanus Mukinduri are seen standing well above the other trees ; this tree extends as far as Nairobi, but is rarely found at a lower altitude.

When close to Nairobi another tree which once seen can never be mistaken for any other is the Muhugu, a species of Brachyleima ; the tree has a very thin crown confined to the upper third of the stem and not spreading. The species is a new one and has not yet been named ; it is a dioecious tree. The following trees and plants may be seen along the line between Kikuyu and Nairobi: Abutilon bidentatum, Solanum campy - lacanthum ; Leonotis elliottii ; Emilia sagittata ; Vernonia sp.

Nairobi forms a well-defined boundary between two distinct zones of vegetation which may be described as tropical and extra-tropical. On the western side there are the hills with a rich variety of luxuriant vegetation, on the eastern the dry, treeless plains, which are green only for two short seasons in each year.

Immediately on leaving Nairobi the line passes on to the plains, on which — except in the rainy season — there is scarcely a speck of colour to relieve the general monotony of dry grass. Our old friend Solanum campylacanthum flourishes along the side of the track, and also Thunbergia alata.

In June and July the little Pentanisia ouranogyme makes pleasing patches of bright blue ; in the rains can be seen here and there the beautiful white flowers of Acidanthera Candida. From Nairobi the line descends to Athi River Station feet. At the bridge over the river may be seen the flat-topped acacias growing close to the water, and the course of the river is indicated for a long distance by these trees.

From Machakos Road Station the line descends rapidly to Kiu feet. Just before coming into Kiu Station the beautiful mauve and white Astrochlaena can be seen on the right-hand side of the line ; this Astrochlaena has a distribution extending to Voi. Leaving Kiu, on each side of the line at certain seasons of the year may be seen the small bushes of Thunbergia erecta , with their gorgeous purple flowers.

About half-way between Kiu and Sultan Hamud the line cuts through a group of acacias with fine red bark ; seen when the sun is low, so that his rays strike direct on to the stems of the trees, the colour is very beautiful. There is an interesting landmark just outside Simba Station feet in the shape of a solitary baobab tree Adansonia digitata , indicating its farthest limit of altitude and also indicating that the real tropics have commenced.

In the station garden there are two exotic trees which are interest- ing as noting the altitude at which they can flourish, they are Moringa pterygosperma and Plumieria rubra , commonly known as Frangipane. Between this station and Kibwezi the white Plumbago zeylanica grows in great abundance along the line, and beyond Makindu the very beautiful Caesalpinia data ; this tree is found also at Voi.

The part of the line between Kibwezi and Voi is a closed book to the writer of this article, as both the up and down mixed trains pass along it in the night. From Voi feet a conspicuous feature on each side of the line are the many Sanseveira plants, chiefly S. The line passes through fairly thick bush, the trees com- posing it having marked xerophytic characters. Conspicuous among the trees are large Euphorbia candelabra and the bright red-flowered Erythrina.

From here towards the coast the climate comes under the influence of the ocean, and in consequence becomes more and more green and fertile as the sea is approached. Small bushes of the Adenium coetaneum make themselves conspicuous along the line by their thick succulent stems resembling miniature baobab trees and their bright red azalea-like flowers ; fine specimens of a cycad, Encephalartos sp.

About half-way between Maji ya Chumvi and Mazeras stations the branching Dom palms are first seen, and they rapidly become the principal feature in the landscape ; associated with them are the small trees of Dalbergia melan - oxylon ebony , Bauhinia reticulata, and the wild custard apple, Anona senegalensis. As Mazeras is approached a fine Borassus aethiopium may be seen some way to the left of the line, with its characteristic bottle-shaped stem.

Cocoanut palms now begin to appear, and by the time Mazeras Station is reached they are very abundant. Between Mazeras feet and Mombasa practically little variation takes place in the flora. Along the line may be seen Oldenlandia abyssinica , with its small bright red flowers appearing above the grass ; Heinsia densiflora, with its pure white flowers, Hibiscus sp.

Of trees, Afzelia cuanzensis Mbembakofe ; Dalbergia melan - oxylon ebony ; Bauhinia reticulata; Anona senegalensis ; Syzygium jambolana Msambarao ; Tamarindus indica, which is here indigenous ; Artocarpus integrifolia ; Anacardium occidental ; Zizyphus jujuba Mkunasi ; Mangifera indica, are conspicuous. On crossing the Makupa bridge mangrove trees, growing in all their luxury, may be noted ; the chief species to be seen are Bhizophora mucronata, Brugueira gymnorhiza, and Avi- cennia officinalis.

To mention all the trees and plants to be seen near the railway would require a very large volume. The obj ect of the writer has been to try to show the large variety of plants and trees which may be seen by any observant person when travelling on the Uganda Railway. From the bamboos of the Kikuyu escarpment to the mangrove swamps of the coast, with all the enormous variety of plants and conditions of climate between, is a far cry, and yet it can all be seen within twenty-four hours!

This fruit plays a part in native ceremonial among the Nandi, Kamasia, Bantu Kavirondo, and A-Kamba, and its influence is generally believed to avert evil or promote peace. East Africa, from the standpoint of zoology, belongs to the Ethiopian region, which comprises all Africa south of the Sahara, together with a part of Southern Arabia.

Within this region there are two well-marked sub-divisions which used to be known as the West-coast and the East-coast, but should be more properly designated the Forest and the Not-forest faunas. British East Africa belongs mainly to the Not-forest area, but many Forest species are found in the more Western districts, and some even in outlying patches of forest right down to the coast.

The more characteristic African forms belong to the Forest fauna. My own experience only extends as far as the East of the Great Rift Valley, and is mainly confined to the Not-forest area. The present note is on two species of the genus Euxanthe, which is a very isolated genus of the family Nym'phalidae, and is now generally regarded as allied to the great genus Charaxes.

The genus Euxanthe is altogether peculiar to the Ethiopian region, and is generally distributed in the tropical parts of the country. These butterflies are of consider- able size, about three or four inches in expanse, though the females may be somewhat larger. They are characterised by very broad rounded wings, the fore wings being very short in proportion to their breadth, at any rate in the males.

They are generally found in forest or at any rate woodland country. There are some six species known, but I have only met with two in the districts which I have worked. It is always found in more or less wooded country, and I have met with it in such localities even on Mombasa island.

It is very fond of settling on the outer leaves of trees, often fairly high up, and thence chasing its fellows from time to time, the butterflies circling round each other for some minutes before coming to rest again. It is also frequently to be seen at rest on the trunks of trees even low down, and is not difficult to capture as it has a habit of returning over the same ground again and again.

It is an interesting fact that this species has very similar habits to the Charaxes, in spite of its very different appearance. It is black with blue-green markings. These consist of a broad macular band on the fore wings commencing below the costa nearer the base than the tip and extending to the anal angle ; there is a row of three smaller spots near the tip, and a row of spots smaller still near the hind margin.

On the hind wings there is a large blotch filling the greater part of the basal area, and two rows of spots near the hind margin, the inner row being much larger than the outer. On the under side the markings are very much the same, but the ground colour is pale brown except on the lower part of the fore wings.

The female is a larger insect, expanding four inches, with the fore wings much more produced. The markings are very similar, but all the pale markings are larger and bluish white. These differences give the butterfly a very different appearance, and in flight it bears a considerable resemblance to the large black and white Amauris niavius, which is a very abundant and highly distasteful insect.

This resemblance is increased by an approximation in its habits. I have never seen the female joining in the evolutions which are so characteristic of the male, but its floating flight resembles that of its model, and it settles frequently, if not generally, with its wings pendent in the same position as the Amauris. It is only found in dense patches of forest and seldom ventures out into the open.

It is generally to be seen settled on trunks of small trees, and it is an insect of sluggish habits, so that it only makes short flights at a time. It is peculiar to British East Africa, whereas E. Wakefieldi is found as far away as Delagoa Bay. It is, however, not quite so easy to catch as it looks, as, when disturbed, it dodges off between the trees and settles on a trunk or branch, ready to take to flight at once if one follows it, and that always before one can come within striking distance.

This species expands about three inches, the female some- times a little more, but there is not the great disparity which there is in the last species. The markings of the fore wings are similar to those of E. Between this band and the base there is a blotch of rich fulvous.

The outer row of spots is also nearer the base and consists of four spots larger than in E. The marginal row of small spots is pure white and conspicuous. The hind wings are dead black, with a marginal row of small white spots and two or three spots of another row inside them.

The under side is very similar, but the hind wings are rich dark brown with the nervures and inter-nervular streaks black. The female is very similar except that all the pale markings are whiter and there is a very large white blotch in the basal half of the hind wings. It is a mimic of Amauris ochlea, which is common in the Coast district. I have little doubt that both these Euxanthes are somewhat distasteful.

They are both very conspicuous on the wing, and E. The undoubted mimi- cry which they exhibit towards the genus Amauris should therefore be regarded as Mullerian, and it is now thought that this mimicry is very usual amongst Lepidoptera. These seines, extending sometimes to over yards from the shore, and the method of working them, are well worth a short notice, as their use, on the Uganda side of the lake at least, has ceased, owing to the operation of the Sleeping Sickness Ordinance ; in fact, under the two-mile rule of this ordinance the solitude of this area must remain unbroken save for the weird roar of the crocodile and the grunting of the hippo, and I have little doubt will soon be a fine breeding ground for the lake birds.

A typical scene in that part on a morning brilliant with sunshine, as yet pleasant since an early start about 6 a. The owners of these cleverly constructed rafts sit singly in the stern, and proving bolder, put out further into the lake and anchor their rafts by means of a large stone. At last in a break in the long line of Mirindi trees ambatch which grow in the water a few yards from the shore one sees the seiners at work.

Carefully coiled on two broad rafts of dry Raphia fronds are two long ropes made of a tough fibrous grass characteristic of this region. When plaited, it forms light but strong rope ; one end of each is fixed to the row of twelve or more fish traps, linked together sideways. Each basket is about four feet in diameter and six to ten feet long, tapering to a blunt point, and each has an internal conical member forming the doorway of the trap.

To the top of each basket to mark its position is fixed a bunch of leaves from the wild date palm, and for thirty to fifty yards on each side of the line of baskets pieces of banana leaves are fixed to the rope as a fringe to direct the fish to the baskets.

All being ready, the baskets are placed on a raft and a man to each raft with a long pole then punt the rafts into the lake, which at this part has a sandy bottom and is scarcely more than ten to sixteen feet deep. When sufficiently far out the baskets are shoved off into the water and each raft makes a detour in an opposite direction and returns to the shore, where a score or more of men, nude save for a fringe of banana leaves girt round their loins, catch hold of the free ends of the ropes and steadily haul in the seine.

Excitement grows as the tufts of palm leaves indicate the near approach of the baskets. When close enough in, some men enter the water and with great splashings drive the fish towards the baskets, which are then drawn round into a circle to enclose the whole catch, which a man standing in the middle drives in.

When the circle has been narrowed down as far as possible, each trap is picked up in turn and tilted so that the fish are poured into a small basket held ready below. When all are emptied, the glittering silvery mass is placed into a shallow hollow scooped in the sand and the fish sorted, while the rafts set out once more.

A crackling fire behind, tended by a youngster, is soon requisitioned, and any special tasty fish toasted over it to cheer the patient toilers. This work is done by the women of the small fishing-camps, and, as may be supposed, the odour in the vicinity of the drying fish is the reverse of fragrant, recalling memories of the nesting haunts of the cormorants and gannets on the Bass Rock.

While camped near one of these stations news was one day brought in of the nest of the Hagedash Ibis Hagedashia hagedash close by. A few minutes sufficed to lash the camera to the tree and focus the nest, which contained two young about a week old, and an addled egg. The shutter set, a long thread was cautiously attached to the release and the end carried to the bushes, where one crouched expectantly, not heeding the damp of the loathsome swamp in the hopes of getting a picture.

Half an hour passes, and as the sun sinks lower and despair is seizing one, hopes are renewed by the sound of swishing wings as the bird returns. How one quivers with excitement as one wonders if it will settle on the nest, or whether the strange object decorated with leaves so near its nest will alarm it? Instantly it sees the strange object and stands erect, full of wild suspicion, and one feels almost suffocated with excite- ment as the sun just shines through a break in the clouds and one pulls the thread and hears the click of the shutter.

Instantly the bird vanishes ; and crawling out, one climbs the tree and resets the camera. The wondering remarks of natives at the inexplicable ways of the white man matter not, and after a quick dinner one starts to develop the precious negative, at one time sure of success, at another despondent of a failure. What matter the cold, the fatigue, the cramp, and long patient waiting in the swamp when one gets such results?

All natural history photographers will understand and sympathise ; and to others I would say, just start the pursuit and you will have a hobby at once engrossing, and of value in teaching one to understand the problems and curious habits of our feathered friends ; at any rate, one need never more complain of dull days, even in Africa. I leave it to fellow members to judge of the result, only asking them to keep in mind that photos lose considerably in the process of reproduction, and being viewed as a flat print, the picture loses considerably more of its beauty.

All nature photos should, in my opinion, be taken and viewed stereoscopically so as to get the full value. It would be a surprise to many to view the same picture stereoscopically and as a plain print. Perhaps when our Society is more firmly established it will be possible to reproduce the prints for viewing through the stereoscope. In conclusion I may add a few notes re the Hagedash Ibis which may prove of interest.

This bird is confined to tropical Africa. Here I have met with it from the Kagera River on the German East Africa boundary to the Nile north of Unyoro, inhabiting the swamp rivers, but being most common along the shores of the Victoria Nyanza. Its food consists of the various worms and grubs to be found in the swamp and by the lake, also small crabs and mussels.

Small fish possibly form part of its diet, though I have never been able to identify their remains during the course of several stomach dissections. It nests by the lake and swamp, choosing usually a position low down on the tree for building its large, untidy nest, made of dead twigs and unlined. A full clutch apparently contains three eggs only, about three inches long, with a rough shell coated with curious reddish brown markings which have the appearance of stains merely.

The young are born almost nude and jet black in colour. Growth takes place rapidly, and in about a fortnight the young leave the nest. One of the best districts for game in this Protectorate, and more especially for elephant, is that part of the Guas Ngishu Plateau situated south-east of Victoria Nyanza, bounded on the east by the Elgeyo escarpment, on the north by the Turkwell River, and west by Mount Elgon.

At least three Vol. These herds present a very fine sight as they travel across from Mount Elgon to the Elgeyo Forest, which they do as soon as the heavy rains start — generally in April and May — spending a week or so browsing along the Nzioa River, and more especially in the swamps above this river. The bulls are very much in the minority and are not of any great size. Bigger bulls, however, are often met wandering about the country by themselves, or more often following up a herd of cows.

They have regular haunts which they visit at certain seasons of the year for different kinds of vegetation, which at that time happen to be more than usually succulent. For instance, these elephants always visit a certain part of the Elgeyo Forest in the middle of the dry season to feed on a particular kind of fibre plant of which they are very fond.

One of the favourite foods of the elephant is the thorn tree especially when in bloom , which they break down and strip of its bark. The peculiar smell emitted from this stripped bark is one of the indications as to how recently a herd has passed ; though, of course, the spoor is the great guide. One cannot but admire the directness of purpose of the elephant, which is demonstrated by the straight line in which the herds always travel.

Whether it be to a salt pan or particular patch of thorn bush days away, there is no winding track towards it, but one direct line. The average pace of an elephant trekking is about five to six miles an hour, but if chased he very soon tires and a pony can easily outrun him. Some people are rather apt to think that he can gallop, but this is hardly correct.

It is curious to note how little noise the elephant makes when moving through the thickest forest. One would expect to hear a crashing and breaking of trees, but as a matter of fact he goes very carefully. The snapping of a twig in the forest will put him at once on the alert, while, when standing in a swamp in the open, he does not appear to hear anyone splashing in about three or four feet of water quite close to him.

Yet it cannot be said that his instinct is altogether faulty, for on one occasion, when following up the spoor of a big bull, I noticed that it suddenly left the old track just before it came to a narrow opening between the edge of the forest and a large bush. Asking myself why he should so suddenly branch off without any apparent reason, I realised only just in time that I was on the brink of an artfully concealed game pit, which the wily tusker either suspected or was fully aware of, for he rejoined the old track some twenty yards further on.

One other good feature that I have personally noticed about elephants is their solicitude for a wounded comrade. I happened one day to wound a bull which fell and immediately got up again. It was at once surrounded by about ten cows, who proceeded to help the wounded animal along.

They hurried it into the centre of the herd, and rendered such effective assistance that, though followed up for ten miles, it eventually got away. One peculiar fact which enables a hunter to tell if any bulls accompany a herd is their habit of taking a parallel course a little to the right or left of the main spoor, and then crossing and travelling on the other side.

This single spoor is an unfailing guide. The bull can as a rule be easily dis- tinguished by being so much broader and more massive than the female. The height of the bulls I have met with in the district described varies from eleven feet two inches to eleven feet ten inches at the shoulder.

These details may not possibly agree with the impressions of more experienced students of the elephant, but I submit them for what they are worth, and as having been gleaned from my own experience and observation. One of the most marked features of the geology of the Eift Valley is the occurrence of thick beds of a mealy friable rock varying in colour from pure white to light brown.

The place where they first attracted attention was on the east side of Elmentaita Lake, where a small stream has carved its way through those deposits, and the Masai name this place 01 Karianduss, from the presence of this white rock. A little search will, however, demonstrate the existence of such deposits at many places both on the east and west flanks of the Eift Valley between Nakuru and the south extremity of the Kodong Valley.

There are, for instance, large beds in the valley of the Endorit Eiver, north-west of Eburu Mountain, and also in the valleys between Ngong Mountain and the Kodong Eiver. Its occurrence is also reported from the vicinity of Sugeta, north of Baringo. Altogether, the deposits of this material in the Eift Valley must amount to millions of tons.

The proper name of this substance is Diatomite, and it is a siliceous deposit principally of organic origin, which is found in many other parts of the world, and is mainly composed of the skeletons, technically called frustules, of minute lowly plants called Diatoms, belonging to the order Diatomaceae or Bacillariaceae. They consist of single cells of grey and brown protoplasm enclosed in a flinty casing formed of two portions, which fit together like a box and its lid.

They are to be found in most fresh-water ponds, and especially flourish in mossy marshes such as one finds on the Aberdare Eange, and they form a kind of scum on the water. With the flinty casing it may be a matter of surprise that such tiny atoms manage to float, but it is believed that they are able to do this by means of a certain amount of oil contained in their structure.

Diatoms multiply with great rapidity and in spite of the flint envelope conjugation takes place, which in these lowly organisms brings new vigour to the stock. Diatoms form an enormous family, one that is said to number several thousand species. Myriads live in the sea as well as in fresh water, and in the great depths of the ocean there are enormous deposits of ooze formed of the skeletons of diatoms, globigerina and radiolaria, the last two, however, being classed among the animal kingdom.

Diatoms are known to belong to the vegetable kingdom by the presence of chlorophyll, a tiny fragment of which colours each cell green or brown, and it is upon this chlorophyll that their life depends, for it has the power of absorbing carbon dioxide from the air, picking out the carbon and with it building up the ceil substance of the diatom, rejecting the oxygen.

Any other nutriment the cell requires is obtained by absorbing various salts which happen to be in a state of solution in the water in which its habitat lies. On the other hand, diatoms possess a faculty which is usually looked upon as a peculiarity of the animal kingdom, namely, that of motion; its method of progression is a mystery, but is possibly due to the move- ments of tiny cilia microscopically invisible.

The pace is so slow compared with that with which it will naturally drift by wind or currents that it is not easy to see what the organism gains by such feeble motive powers. It has, however, been suggested that its power of motion may prevent it being covered with mud when it sinks to the bottom of a pool, and it also may enable it to retire below the surface where the upper layers of water are disturbed by a strong breeze.

The next question one probably asks is why such enormous deposits of diatomaceous clay should be found in the Rift Valley, and this can, I think, be explained to a great extent. From Tertiary times onwards the Rift Valley has been the scene of tremendous volcanic activity, and the eruptive matter has uniformly been of what geologists call an acidic type, that is to say, the lavas and ashes ejected from the volcanoes contain a preponderance of silica Si0 2.

For convenience of classification all volcanic materials containing over 60 per cent, of Si0 2 are classed as acidic rocks, and all containing below that percentage are classed as basic. Now certain forms of amorphous silica, and also the crystalline form known as tridymite, are soluble to a varying extent in carbonate of soda solution.

Professor Gregory has called attention to the high percentage of soda-carrying minerals in many of the lavas he collected in his journey through this area, and although proper analyses of the rocks have rarely been made, we know that the Rift Valley region abounds in soda deposits, vide the Magadi Lake and the similar deposits north of Baringo.

Lakes Hanning- ton, Nakuru, and Elmentaita are so heavily impregnated with soda salts as to be undrinkable. The water of Lake Naivasha too is impregnated with soda in a lesser degree. We also know that at one period of the history of the Rift Valley, Lake Naivasha stretched from near Gil-gil to the slopes of Lon- genot, and south of that again formerly occurred what Gregory calls Lake Suess ; Nakuru and Elmentaita also about that time coalesced into one huge lake covering the Elmentaita Plains.

We thus have all the conditions and materials at hand necessary for the formation of these great beds of diato- mite ; picture Suswa, Longenot and Eburu all periodically in active eruption, and in addition to lava flows ejecting great clouds of volcanic dust and streams of mud mainly composed of siliceous fragments.

This is almost certain to have been, as is the case in all volcanoes of this kind ; the steam tearing its way through the magma which formed the flows of obsidian and trachytic tuffs would naturally blow large quantities into a state of very fine division, and this would be spread far and wide by the wind and also carried into the lakes by the torrential downpours which always accompany volcanic activity.

The soda-laden water would dissolve the silica and place it ready for the diatoms to work upon, and with such rich material to build with one can quite see that this form of life could flourish with great luxuriance. It may be asked why the soda-laden water did not redissolve the dead skeletons of the diatoms, but this is probably due to the organic material which helps to cement together the skeleton, and also to the presence of an admixture of aluminous matter which continually washed down into the lakes and helped to bury the siliceous fragments.

A few remarks as to the economic aspects of these deposits may not be amiss. Diatomite is used for various industrial purposes, amongst others to mix with nitro-glycerine to form dynamite ; the kind used for this purpose usually comes from Prussia, and is called Kieselguhr. Owing, however, to the invention of more powerful and safer explosives this is a decreasing need.

One of its greatest uses is as a polishing material for metal work ; it is known under the commercial name of Tripoli, from the country whence it was originally introduced. Some of the polishing soaps also contain diatomaceous earth. It might also be used to great advantage to make tiles for houses in tropical countries. It is also used in the manufacture of water glass or silicate of soda and artificial meerschaum.

Its value commercially depends on the amount of silica it contains, its white colour, its absorbent qualities, and the fineness with which it is ground. The analyses of samples from different parts of the world give results varying from 75 per cent, to 90 per cent, of silica and 3 per cent, to 10 per cent, of alumina, the balance being made up of small percentages of iron, potash, soda, and organic matter.

The present consumption in England is said to be about tons per annum. I am indebted to the Imperial Institute Bulletin for most of the facts regarding the commercial aspect of the product. Readers of this journal will doubtless be interested to hear that whilst camped on the Aberdare Range on August 28 last, I succeeded in catching five trout, and rising five or six others.

The fish were all taken with a small grouse wing fly and within a distance of yards down stream of the footbridge that crosses the Gura stream, and within a very short distance of the site of the hatchery, which was further up stream. The stream itself is little more than 2 feet in width, except here and there where it widens out into small pools of perhaps 4 feet in width.

The fish, all brown trout, varied from 8 to 6 inches in length, and were little over a quarter of a pound in weight, and were probably hatched out from the same consignment of ova. As I saw nothing larger or smaller than these fish and was anxious to obtain evidence of others, Mr. Guy Baker of the Forestry Department very kindly undertook to try to obtain further evidence. This latter appears to differ from the brown trout in being much more silvery, besides having a rounder and proportionately shorter head, and it may be a rainbow trout.

But what is of still more interest, as tending to show that it is probable that the fish have already begun to breed, is a photograph by Mr. Baker of a fish 15 inches in length and 15 oz. Baker informs me that all his fish were caught with a fly, and within three miles of the site of the hatchery.

Their progress should, however, be carefully watched, and numbers of young fish should be transferred to other streams on the range and to the head waters of the Morendat and Gil-gil rivers, and later on efforts should be made to establish them in the streams rising on the Mau plateau.

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On subsequent occasions one often passed the spot and could see the bird still faithfully performing its task, till one day we were fortunate enough to find the young one recently hatched out, and looking not unlike a young curlew, as at home, in its markings, but it was too nimble to allow one to take its picture. Feathers of the top of the head each with a wide black shaft-stripe. Very little is known of their breeding habits, but it is hoped that residents in the districts in which some of the species are found will keep careful notes on such an important question, and will record their observations in this Journal. It appears to be more partial to open bush-country than to the grassy plains. Wild Life at Home — how 6s. It might very easily be mistaken for F. The Museum will be thirty feet long by twenty-five feet wide, and there will be an adjoining room sixteen feet by fourteen feet for a Committee room.

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  8. To the top of each basket to mark its position is fixed a bunch of leaves from the wild date palm, and for thirty to fifty yards on each side of the line of baskets pieces of banana leaves are fixed to the rope as a fringe to direct the fish to the baskets.

The height of the bulls I have met with in the district described varies from eleven feet two inches to eleven feet ten inches at the shoulder. A full clutch apparently contains three eggs only, about three inches long, with a rough shell coated with curious reddish brown markings which have the appearance of stains merely. In conclusion I may add a few notes re the Hagedash Ibis which may prove of interest. At present game-birds of all kinds are shot throughout the year, but until we can obtain authentic information regarding the breeding seasons, it is practically impossible even to suggest a close season, so much needed and which all sports- men and lovers of Nature would only be too glad to see introduced.


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